Fasa Peralihan Nelayan Laut Dalam serta Kesan ke atas Ekonomi, Sosiobudaya dan Persekitaran (Transitional Phase of Deep-Sea Fishermen and Impact on Economic, Sociocultural and Environment)

Norfatiha Othman, Abdul Rahman Abdul Latip, Nor Hayati Sa'at

Abstract


Globalisasi dalam industri perikanan telah memberi kesan kepada pendapatan negara, pendapatan nelayan dan interaksi sosial di Malaysia khususnya di Wilayah ECER. Makalah ini mempunyai dua tujuan, pertama membincangkan perkembangan industri perikanan di wilayah ECER; kedua, meneliti kesan perkembangan industri perikanan dan kaitannya dengan titik peralihan nelayan laut dalam. Kajian menggabungkan data primer dan data sekunder untuk mendapatkan hasil kajian. Kajian dilakukan menerusi pendekatan kualitatif dengan menemu bual 17 orang informan yang terdiri daripada juragan laut dalam. Informan dipilih menerusi pensampelan bertujuan dan pensampelan bola salji. Kajian dilakukan di wilayah ECER (East Coast Economic Region) yang melibatkan empat buah negeri iaitu Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang dan Johor Timur. Hasil temu bual ditranskripsikan dalam bentuk data verbatim iaitu sedutan kata daripada informan. Data verbatim dianalisis menggunakan analisis tematik yang melibatkan proses pengekodan, pengkategorian dan akhirnya pengeluaran tema bagi menjawab soalan kajian.Analisis kajian mendapati bahawa perkembangan industri perikanan mempengaruhi proses peralihan yang berlaku kepada nelayan laut dalam. Peralihan tersebut menunjukkan bahawa nelayan laut dalam dapat menerima perubahan yang berlaku dalam industri perikanan. Malah proses peralihan nelayan itu sendiri memberi kesan dari segi sosial, ekonomi, fizikal dan polisi kepada industri perikanan. Penemuan penting adalah nelayan laut dalam khususnya sebahagian juragan laut dalam telah menjadi pengusaha perikanan atau usahawan perikanan yang dikenali sebagai juragan-pengusaha. Pengiktirafan juragan-pengusaha sebagai usahawan secara tidak langsung memberi kesan kepada polisi strategik dalam industri perikanan berkaitan dengan jaminan keselamatan makanan negara. 

 

Kata kunci: peralihan nelayan; industri perikanan; globalisasi; nelayan laut dalam; juragan

 

Abstract

 

Globalization in the fishery industry has affected the country's income, fishermen's income and social interaction in Malaysia, especially in the ECER Region. This paper has two objectives, first discussing the development of the fishery industry in the ECER region; Secondly, examine the impression of industrial fisheries development and its relation to the transitional point of the deep-sea fishermen. The study combines primary data and secondary data to get results studies. The study was conducted through a qualitative approach by interviewing 17 informants consisting of deep-sea skipper. Informants are selected through purposive sampling and snowball sampling. The study was conducted in ECER (East Coast Economic Region) which involved four states namely Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and East Johor. The results of the interview are transcribed in the form of verbatim words which are the words of informants. The verbatim data were analysed using thematic analysis involving the coding process, the categorization and finally the theme output to answer the questionnaire. The analysis of the study found that the development of the fisheries industry affected the transitional process that occurred to deep-sea fishermen. The transition shows that deep-sea fishermen can accept changes in industry fisheries. In fact, the fishery transition process itself affects the social, economic, physical and policy aspects of the fisheries industry. An important discovery is some deep-sea skipper, have become fishery entrepreneurs known as ‘juragan-pengusaha’ (skipper-entrepreneur). Recognition of skipper as entrepreneurs indirectly impacts strategic policies in the fisheries industry in relation to the national food security assurance.

 

Keyword: fisherman transitional; fishing industry; globalisation; deep-sea fisherman; skipper

 


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