Pemantauan percanggahan guna tanah bandar dan tanah pertanian menggunakan Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) (Monitoring land use conflict between urban and agricultural land using Geography Information System (GIS))

Zurinah Tahir, Jalaluddin Abdul Malek

Abstract


Abstrak

 

Perkembangan guna tanah yang ketara akibat daripada pertambahan penduduk yang pesat, peningkatan kemajuan perbandaranan dan kawasan industri telah menyebabkan kehilangan kawasan tanah pertanian. Keadaan ini juga turut menyebabkan berlakunya percanggahan guna tanah khususnya tanah pertanian. Kajian ini dilaksanakan bertujuan untuk membangunkan pangkalan data Sistem Maklumat Geografi (Geography Information System/GIS) bagi mengkaji perkembangan guna tanah bandar dan memantau guna tanah pertanian. Kajian ini turut menganalisis implikasi perubahan guna tanah ke atas tanah pertanian dengan menggunakan fungsi GIS dan mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi tanah pertanian berkurang. Kefungsian GIS ini dapat membantu pihak yang berkenaan untuk membuat keputusan yang berkaitan dengan guna tanah terutama dalam kerja-kerja yang melibatkan pemantauan guna tanah pertanian. Kaedah kajian ini melibatkan pengumpulan data spatial dan atribut termasuklah pelan guna tanah, maklumat taburan perumahan, taburan perdagangan dan perindustrian. Dalam kajian ini, integrasi data spatial dan hubungan atribut dibincangkan secara terperinci. Penemuan kajian menunjukkan bahawa terdapat beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi kehilangan tanah pertanian dan GIS telah membantu dalam perancangan dan pemantauan penggunaan tanah. Aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi mempunyai keupayaan dalam pengurusan pangkalan data, model analisis dan analisis ruang yang dapat membantu perancang dan pembuat keputusan untuk melakukan tindakan dan membuat garis panduan perancangan dan pemantauan pembangunan guna tanah di kawasan kajian supaya mencapai pembangunan guna tanah yang mampan. Menerusi sistem GIS ini, analisis terhadap tren perubahan guna tanah dapat diketahui dengan cepat dan mudah dilaksanakan mengikut fungsi-fungsi yang telah disediakan oleh perisian ArcView. Oleh itu, dengan adanya sistem GIS, pendekatan perancangan yang rasional dan sistematik, kualiti perancangan dan proses membuat keputusan dapat ditingkatkan secara berkesan bagi mengawal perancangan guna tanah.

Kata kunci: bandar, guna tanah, pemantauan, percanggahan, Sistem Maklumat Geografi, tanah pertanian 

 

Abstract

 

Demand for land to accomodate the rise in population following urban development and the expansion of industry has resulted in the appropriation of land for purposes other than its designated use. This is especially serious in the case of agricultural land. This study was undertaken to establish a Geographic Information System (GIS) database to examine the occurrence of urban enroachment and to monitor land use for agricultural purposes. Changes in land use was tracked and analysed using GIS and factors that influenced the loss of agricultural land were examined. The study method involved the collection of spatial data and attributes including land use plans, housing, trade and industrial distribution information. In this research, the integration of spatial data and attribute relation are discussed in detail. The findings of this study indicated that there are several factors that influenced the loss of agricultural land and GIS has helped in the planning and monitoring of land use, especially in the agricultural sector. Its database facilitates model analysis and spatial analysis to aid planning and decision-making in the formulation of land use guidelines to ensure sustainable development. The GIS system allows changing trends in land use to be discerned readily using the ArcView software. With the GIS system, it is possible to implement rational and systematic planning and the decision-making process to regulate land use development becomes more effective.

Keywords: urban, land-use, monitoring, conflict, Geography Information System, agricultural land


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