Kecenderungan penglibatan agropreneur dalam industri tanaman cendawan di Johor (Agropreneurs’ inclination to participate in the Johor mushroom industry)

Rosmiza MZ, Juliana Mah Hussin

Abstract


Abstrak

 

Senario permintaan di pasaran global semakin meningkat terhadap tanaman cendawan disebabkan kelebihannya dalam pembangunan industri farmaseutikal, nutraseutikal, kosmeseutikal serta potensinya dalam pembangunan industri hiliran lain. Lantas, mendorong penglibatan agropreneur untuk menceburi industri herba ini. Namun, kadar penawaran cendawan di pasaran tempatan masih lagi rendah lantaran kekurangan pengusaha. Dalam usaha meningkatkan kadar penawaran cendawan di pasaran tempatan dan galakan penyertaan agropreneur, Dasar Agromakanan Negara (2011-2020) telah menetapkan industri cendawan sebagai salah satu industri bernilai tinggi negara. Tumpuan diberikan oleh pihak kerajaan sebagai dorongan untuk meningkatkan penyertaan agropreneur menceburi tanaman cendawan. Justeru, kajian dilakukan untuk mengkaji jenis cendawan yang ditawarkan serta menilai faktor kecenderungan penglibatan agropreneur dalam industri cendawan di Johor. Pemilihan Johor sebagai kawasan kajian memandangkan kadar penglibatan agropreneur dan pengeluaran hasil cendawan di wilayah ini adalah tertinggi di Malaysia. Rekabentuk kajian bersifat kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Kaedah triangulasi melibatkan kaji selidik, temubual dan pemerhatian telah dilaksanakan ke atas 42 orang responden. Kajian mendapati keseluruhan agropreneur di Johor menawarkan cendawan tiram kelabu (Pleurotus pulmonarius) kerana permintaan di pasaran tempatan adalah tinggi selain turut mengusahakan cendawan kukur (Schizophyllum sp.) dalam skala kecil. Kajian menonjolkan kecenderungan utama penglibatan agropreneur dalam industri tanaman cendawan adalah disebabkan oleh faktor minat terhadap tanaman herba ini. Selain itu, ia turut didorong oleh pulangan pendapatan lumayan dalam jangka masa singkat; pengaruh rakan perniagaan yang berjaya; pengaruh dasar kerajaan; serta mengambil alih perusahaan keluarga. Kesungguhan minat agropreneur untuk mengusahakan tanaman cendawan perlu didorong secara bersepadu, efektif serta holistik oleh pihak kerajaan melalui penawaran pelbagai insentif serta khidmat nasihat. Peningkatan penyertaan agropreneur dalam industri herba ini akan meningkatkan penawaran cendawan di pasaran malah berupaya mengurangkan kebergantungan import serta mensasarkan kepada jualan eksport negara.

 

Kata kunci: agropreneur, cendawan, herba, kecenderungan, penawaran, penglibatan

Abstract

 

The global demand for mushrooms is on the rise due to their pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical benefits, as well as the development of downstream industries. This has prompted agropreneurs to take part in this herbal industry. Local mushroom supply levels, however, are inadequate because of the lack of cultivators. In a bid to boost the local mushroom supply and to encourage the participation of agropreneurs, the National Agrofood Policy (2011-2020) has included the mushroom industry as one of the country’s high-value industries. The government has focussed its attention on this in order to motivate agropreneurs to cultivate mushrooms. Therefore, research has been carried out to identify the types of mushrooms that are on offer, and to investigate what are the factors that drive agropreneurs in Johor to cultivate mushrooms. Johor was chosen for this study because it has the highest number of agropreneurs, as well as mushroom production in the Malaysian mushroom industry. The research utilised both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The triangulation method, which includes questionnaires, interviews, and observation was carried out on 42 respondents. The data shows that all agropreneurs in Johor supply grey oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus pulmonarius) because of the high local demand for it, while fungus mushrooms (Schizophyllum sp.) are cultivated in small scale. The research indicates that the agropreneurs are inclined towards this industry because of their interest in this crop. Additionally, they are attracted by the promise of high returns within a short term; the success of fellow cultivators; incentives provided by the national policy; or because they took over the family business. To sustain the interest of agropreneurs in this industry, the government should provide integrated, effective, and holistic motivation through various incentives and by offering expert advice. The increase of local agropreneur participation in mushroom cultivation will boost local supplies, lessen our dependence on imported mushrooms, and provide supplies for the export market.

 

Keywords: agropreneur, mushroom, herbs, inclination, supply, participate


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