Peranan ASEAN dalam Kesalinghubungan Pengangkutan Rel di Asia: Evolusi, Faktor dan Prospek (ASEAN’s role in rail connectivity in Asia: Evolution, factors and prospects)

Yau Duenn Wong, Kok Fay Chin, Cheng-Chwee Kuik

Abstract


Abstrak

Pengkritik biasanya menggambarkan ‘ASEAN Way’ sebagai proses yang lembap dalam mempromosi integrasi serantau. Kritikan tersebut telah membawa kepada persoalan berhubung dengan peranan ASEAN dalam prospek kesalinghubungan fizikal serantau. Setakat ini memang terdapat kekurangan kajian ekonomi politik berkenaan dengan peranan ASEAN dalam perkembangan kesalinghubungan rel serantau di Asia. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan memenuhi lompang penyelidikan tersebut. Artikel ini bermula dengan penyingkapan sejarah asal-usul perkembangan jaringan keretapi merentasi Asia sejak zaman imperialisme bagi mengkaji evolusi dan pelbagai faktor yang mempengaruhi perkembangan kesalinghubungan pengangkutan rel di rantau tersebut. Berdasarkan data sekunder berkenaan perkembangan rangkaian keretapi di Asia, analisis menunjukkan bahawa faktor ekonomi merupakan pendorong utama bagi setiap fasa perkembangan jaringan rel di rantau tersebut. Faktor tersebut bertambah penting berikutan dengan peningkatan penglibatan Asia dalam rangkaian pengeluaran global serta peningkatan perdagangan intra-ASEAN dan perdagangan dengan rantau lain sejak 1990-an. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa kesalinghubungan pengangkutan rel di Asia berkembang mengikut konteks ekonomi politik rantau tersebut tanpa mengikut acuan institusi Kesatuan Eropah. Pelaksanaan polisi adalah terikat dengan perundangan Kesatuan Eropah. Pendekatan ASEAN yang berasaskan persefahaman dan autonomi nasional memberi fleksibiliti kepada negara-negara anggota ASEAN dalam pelaksanaan kesalinghubungan. Namun demikian, potensi ekonomi yang tinggi telah meningkatkan kehendak politik dan komitmen pemimpin-pemimpin ASEAN bagi memastikan kelancaran pelaksanaan jaringan rel Trans-Asian walaupun terdapat beberapa halangan dan masalah daripada segi politik dan geografi/teknikal. Justeru, prospek perkembangan jaringan TAR adalah cerah dengan gabungan peranan ASEAN, initiatif China dan Jepun melalui Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity, Belt and Road Initiative dan Partnership for Quality Infrastructure, di samping bantuan teknikal dan kewangan daripada organisasi antarabangsa lain.

 

Kata kunci: ASEAN, institusi, integrasi, jaringan rel Trans-Asian, kesalinghubungan pengangkutan, rangkaian keretapi

  

Abstract

Critics of “ASEAN Way” have often portrayed it as sluggish in making progress in regional integration. The criticism raises questions about ASEAN’s role in the development of physical connectivity. There is a lack of political economy studies on the subject, particularly on ASEAN’s role in rail transport connectivity. Hence this paper aims to address the research lacuna. It begins with tracing the historical development of railway networks across Asia since the colonial period to examine the evolution and factors affecting the progress in railway connectivity across the region. Based on the available data on various stages of railway networks in Asia, our research indicates that economic factor has been the main impetus for railway connectivity development in the region. The factor has become even more important following Asia’s increasing participation in the global production network and rising intra- and inter-Asia trade with other regions since 1990s. This article argues that rail connectivity development in Asia has progressed without following the European Union model where implementation is bound by the European legislation. The ASEAN approach, which emphasizes consensus and national autonomy, accords flexibility to its member countries in implementing their own connectivity projects. However, growing economic potential has enhanced Southeast Asian leaders’ political wills to further develop TAR networks despite some political and geographical/technical impediments. Therefore, the prospect for TAR is bright due to the combined efforts of ASEAN, China and Japan through MPAC, BRI and PQI, alongside technical and financial assistance from organizations like UNESCAP, ADB dan AIIB.

 

Keywords: ASEAN, institutions, integration, Trans-Asian Railway, transport connectivity, railway networks

Keywords


ASEAN, integrasi, institusi, Jaringan Keretapi Trans Asia, kesalinghubungan pengangkutan. (ASEAN, institutions, integration, Trans-Asian Railway, transport connectivity, railway networks)

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