[ms] Pan-Islamism Policy in the Reign of Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909)

Zulhelman Roslan, Ermy Azziaty Rozali


This article commences discussion from al-Sallabi’s statement that Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II employed several methods of implementation in order to realize the Pan-Islamism policy he introduced. The research objectives are to examine the background of his reign, discuss the Pan-Islamism concept until it developed as a policy and analyse the methods of its implementation by Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II, in order to manifest it to the Muslim Ummah. This qualitative research uses a historical study and content analysis approach. This research also applies a documentation approach in gathering data by focusing on historical sources related to the reign of Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II an writings on the Pan-Islamism approach. Analysis of research data is by using a thematic and deductive approach. Research results find that the support of the majority of parties for Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II strengthened his Pan-Islamism policy enabling it to spread to the entire Muslim comunity. Hence, the role of preachers and intellectuals, network of tasawuf (Islamic mystical) stream, restructuring of educational institutions, the Sultan’s statesmanship and diplomacy, development of telegraph and postal service system as well as the Hijaz railway project became methods to manifest this policy of unifying the entire Muslim Ummah.


Pan-Islamism; Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II; the Ottomans; political history; administrative policy

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