Perbandingan Pengalaman Antara Budaya Pelajar Antarabangsa di Universiti Malaysia Sabah dalam Satu Dekad 2006-2016

Halina Sendera Mohd Yakin, Andreas Totu

Abstract


Kejutan budaya, akulturasi serta adaptasi budaya adalah antara isu hubungan antara budaya yang sering melanda kehidupan kelompok penghijrah. Bertunjangkan isu-isu berkenaan, makalah ini diprakarsakan untuk mengkaji perbandingan pengalaman antara budaya pelajar antarabangsa, iaitu pelajar dari Republik Rakyat China (RRC) yang melanjutkan pengajian di Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Dengan mengaplikasikan Teori Akulturasi Berry dan Teori Adaptasi Budaya Kim serta teknik pengamatan, temu bual kumpulan fokus dan temu bual mendalam, kajian perbandingan bersifat kualitatif ini dianalisis berdasarkan dua penelitian yang dilaksanakan dalam horizon waktu berbeza, iaitu kajian pada 2006-2007 dan 2014-2016. Isu kejutan budaya pelajar RRC diwacanakan berdasarkan beberapa aspek, iaitu aspek bahasa: corak komunikasi dan hubungan sosial, aspek akademik: pengajaran dan pembelajaran, aspek praktikal: harga pasaran, kewangan serta gaya dan corak hidup serta aspek sosio-budaya: makanan, pakaian dan sebagainya. Akulturasi dan adaptasi budaya pula diklasifikasikan kepada beberapa tema, iaitu komunikasi lisan dan bukan lisan (kinesics) serta penguasaan bahasa, hubungan dengan masyarakat sebangsa (co-nationals) dan masyarakat tempatan, corak petempatan berkelompok dan khidmat orang tengah. Faktor-faktor yang menyumbang kepada perbandingan pengalaman antara budaya pula ialah keberadaan alumni, prosedur pengambilan pelajar, struktur kursus, peningkatan jumlah pelajar RRC dan masyarakat Cina serta pemerkasaan dan penaiktarafan servis atau khidmat. Dari perspektif teori, akulturasi dan adaptasi budaya para pelajar disifatkan sebagai gabungan antara strategi integrasi dan pemisahan.

 

Katakunci: Kejutan budaya, akulturasi,  adaptasi budaya, penghijrah sementara, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdul Latiff Ahmad, Emma Mirza, Rusyda Helma Mohd, Latiffah Pawanteh, & Ali Salman. (2014). Adaptation and the new media technology: A study on Malaysian students in Australia and United Kingdom. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 30(1), 187-198.

Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 697-712.

Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (1992). Cross-cultural psychology research & applications. Cambridge: University Press.

Berry, J. W. (1990). Psychology of acculturation: Understanding individuals between cultures. Dlm. Brislin, R. W. (pnyt). Applied cross-cultural psychology (pp. 232- 253). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M., & Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 38(2), 185-206.

Berry, J. W., Kim, U., & Boski, P. (1988). Psychological acculturation of immigrants. Dlm. Kim, Y. Y., & Gudykunst, W. B. (pnyt). Cross-cultural adaptation: Current approaches. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, xxi(3), 491-511.

Berry, J. W., & Annis, R. C. (1974). Acculturative stress: The role of ecology, culture & differentiation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 5(4), 382-405.

Chan-Hoong Leong. (2014). Social markers of acculturation: A new research framework on intercultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38, 120-132.

Gang Chen, M. A. (2000). Death rituals in a Chinese village: An old tradition in contemporary social context (Unpublished PhD dissertation, The Ohio State University, Ohio).

Geeraert, N., Demoulin, S., & Demes, K. A. (2014). Choose your (international) contact wisely: A multilevel analysis on the impact of intergroup contact while living abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38, 86-96.

Ge Gao, & Gudykunst, W. B. (1990). Uncertainty, anxiety and adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, 301-317.

Ge Gao. (1998). Don’t take my word for it - Understanding Chinese speaking practices. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 163-186.

Gmelch, G. (1997). Crossing cultures: Student travel and personal development. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21(4), 475-490.

Gudykunst, W., & Nishida, T. (2001). Anxiety, uncertainty & perceived effectiveness of communication across relationships and cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 55-71.

Gudykunst, W. B. (1998). Individualistic and collectivistic perspectives on communication: An introduction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 107-134.

Gudykunst, W. B., & Shapiro, R. B. (1996). Communication in everyday interpersonal and intergroup encounters. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(1), 19-45.

Halina Sendera Mohd. Yakin. (2007). Identiti budaya etnik Palau’ di Semporna, Sabah: Konservasi, adaptasi dan transformasi budaya. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbit Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

Halina Sendera Mohd. Yakin. (2003). Akulturasi imigran Filipina generasi pertama dan kedua di Sabah. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbit Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

Hu, Y., & Fan, W. An exploratory study on intercultural communication research contents and methods: A survey based on the international and domestic journal papers published from 2001 to 2005. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 554-556.

Jamilah Ahmad, & Niranjala Weerakkody. (2011). Komunikasi budaya silang, kompetensi, pengajaran dan pembelajaran: Satu analisis. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia, 36(1), 45-53.

Khakimova, L., Zhang, Y. B., & Hall, J. A. (2012). Conflict management styles: The role of ethnic identity and self-construal among young male Arabs and Americans. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 41(1), 37-57.

Koester, J. (1988). The behavioral assessment scale for intercultural communication effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 233-246.

Lin, Y.-C., Chen, A. S.-Y., & Song, Y.-C. (2012). Does your intelligence help to survive in a foreign jungle? The effects of cultural intelligence on cross-cultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36, 541-552.

Lopez-Rodriguez, L., Zagefka, H., Navas, M., & Cuadrado, I. (2014). Explaining majority members’ acculturation preferences for minority members: A mediation model. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38, 36-46.

Marlin Abdul Malek, & Pawan Budhwar. (2013). Cultural intelligence as a predictor of expatriate adjustment and performancee in Malaysia. Journal of World Business, 48, 222-231.

Neuliep, J. W. (2012). The relationship among intercultural communication apprehension, ethnocentrism, uncertainty reduction and communication satisfaction during initial intercultural interaction: An extension of anxiety and uncertainty management (AUM) theory. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 41(1), 1-16.

Prospektus Prasiswazah 2014/2015. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

Prosser, M. H. (2012). K. S. Sitaram An early interculturalist: Founding the field May 6, 1970. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(6), 857-868.

Rihab Mousa Yako, & Bipasha Biswas (2014). We came to this country for the future of our children. we have no future: Acculturative stress among Iraqi refugees in the us. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38, 133-141.

Sabariah Mohamed Salleh, & Siti Khadijah Hussin (2017). Tekanan akulturasi pelajar Malaysia di luar negara. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 33(1), 340-355.

Searle, W., & Ward, C. (1990). The prediction of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, 449-464.

Smith, R. A., & Nigar, G., & Khawaja, N. G. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 699-713.

Tengku Siti Aisha Tengku Mohd Azzman Shariffadeen. (2018). Examining intercultural differences in close friendship maintenance on facebook: A relational dialectics perspective. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 34(3), 131-149.

Ting-Toomey, S., & Kurogi, A. (1998). Facework competence in intercultural conflict: An updated face-negotiation theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 187-225.

Ward, C., & Searle, W. (1991). The impact of value discrepancies and cultural identity on psychological and sociocultural adjustment of sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 209-225.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.