Skala Psikometrik: Perspektif Kawalan Sosial Tidak Formal dan Pengukuhan Nilai Integriti Golongan Muda

Mohd Sufiean Hassan, Maizatul Haizan Mahbob, Mohd Helmi Abd Rahim

Abstract


Kawalan sosial tidak formal merupakan kaedah pengukuhan nilai integriti yang berkesan mengekang salah laku golongan muda. Kajian empirikal kawalan sosial tidak formal kurang diberi perhatian pengkaji sains sosial dan kemanusiaan kerana kaedah ini dilaporkan mengambil masa yang lama bagi mengukuhkan nilai integriti berbanding kawalan sosial formal. Namun, pelaksanaan kawalan sosial tidak formal disahkan bukan sahaja mengurangkan kos sistem keselamatan sosial malah membentuk peribadi golongan muda yang berintegriti. Justeru, kajian ini memberi tumpuan dalam menilai skala psikometrik kawalan sosial dan pengukuhan nilai integriti golongan muda. Bagi menguji nilai integriti, Teori Kawalan Sosial Tidak Formal diuji ke atas 400 mahasiswa negeri Melaka dari empat Institusi Pengajian Tinggi iaitu Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Melaka, Universiti Multimedia, (MMU) Melaka dan Kolej Universiti Islam Melaka (KUIM). Instrumen Skala Kawalan Sosial Tidak Formal dibentuk daripada Teori Ikatan Sosial dan Skala Keagamaan untuk menguji nilai integriti golongan muda melalui Analisis Faktor Pengesahan (CFA) dan pembentukan Model CFA Skala Kawalan Sosial Tidak Formal. Dapatan menunjukkan model multi-dimensi skala kawalan sosial telah mencapai ketepatan padanan yang baik dan mencapai kesahan konvergen berdasarkan hubungan yang signifikan pemboleh ubah. Skala ini turut mencapai kesahan diskriminan dan kesahan prediktif yang menyokong ciri-ciri psikometrik versi Bahasa Melayu. Kajian ini secara langsung menyumbang kepada pembentukan Skala Kawalan Sosial Tidak Formal yang kurang diberi perhatian oleh penyelidik sebelumnya.

 

Kata kunci: Kawalan sosial tidak formal, keterikatan, kepercayaan, keterlibatan, komitmen.


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