Strategi Pembangunan Keusahawanan Asnaf Fakir dan Miskin melalui Agihan Bantuan Modal Zakat (Entrepreneurship Development Strategy for Poor and Needy Recipients on Capital Assistance through Zakat Distribution)

Rosbi Abd Rahman, Sanep Ahmad

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Salah satu jenis bantuan yang telah disalurkan oleh pihak pengurusan dan pentadbiran zakat bagi memastikan
golongan asnaf fakir dan miskin dapat meningkatkan taraf hidup ialah bantuan dalam bentuk modal perniagaan. Pemberian modal diharap dapat menjana pendapatan jangka panjang dan membantu mentransformasikan mereka
menjadi usahawan dan seterusnya berubah dari penerima zakat kepada pembayar zakat. Namun kebanyakan penerima
bantuan mengalami kegagalan dan alasan utama diberikan adalah menghadapi masalah berkaitan modal.Persoalannya ialah adakah benar masalah modal menjadi faktor terpenting menyebabkan kegagalan atau mungkin terdapat faktor lain yang tidak kurang pentingnya perlu diberi perhatian. Sehubungan itu kajian ini bertujuan meneliti faktor-faktor selain modal yang dijangka penting dan mempengaruhi kejayaan atau kegagalan pembangunan usahawan asnaf fakir dan miskin. Kajian menggunakan model logit binomial ke atas 534 orang golongan asnaf yang telah menerima bantuan modal perniagaan di negeri Selangor dan Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur. Hasil kajian mendapati selain modal terdapat faktor lain yang juga signifikan mempengaruhi kejayaan perniagaan iaitu umur, jantina, tempoh berniaga, aspek pemantauan, ciri perniagaan, kecekapan pengurusan zakat, sikap optimis, kemahiran
sosial, jaringan sosial, dan pengambil risiko. Implikasi penting dapatan kajian ialah strategi pembangunan usahawan asnaf tidak memadai difokuskan kepada aspek bantuan modal sahaja tetapi perlu juga disertakan dan dilengkapkan dengan faktor penting yang lain.

ABSTRACT
One type of assistance that was granted by the management and administration of the charity to ensure that the poor
and needy recipients can improve their living standards is by assistance in the form of business capital. Capital grants
are expected to generate long-term income and help to transform them to be an entrepreneur and then can also turn
them to become a payer of zakat instead of recipients of zakat. However, many beneficiaries have failed and the main
reason given is a problem related to the capital. The question is whether the problem of capital was the most important
factor that causing the failure, or there may be other factors that are equally important concern. Therefore, this study
was to examine factors other than the expected significant capital that can influence the success or failure of the
development on the poor and needy recipients. This study is using a binomial logit model on the 534 recipients who had
received business capital assistance in Selangor and Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. The study found that there
were other factors besides capital that also significantly affect the success of the business which are age, sex, duration
of business, the monitoring, and the nature of business, the efficiency in management of zakat, optimism, social skills,
social networks, and risk takers. Hence, the important implication of this study is the development strategies for poor and needy recipients are not sufficient if it’s only focused on the aspects of capital assistance, but it must also be
accompanied and complemented by other important factors.


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