Generic Skill Requirements: Between Employer’s Aspiration and the Need of Professional Employees (Keperluan Kemahiran Generik: Antara Aspirasi Majikan dengan Keperluan Pekerja Profesional)

Rosima Alias, Mohd Izham Mohd Hamzah, Nora Yahya

Abstract


ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to explore the different generic skills (GS) required by employers and the generic skills possessed by professional employees in Malaysia. This study also aims to determine whether there are differences in the GS requirements among employers based upon the size of the organization, type of ownership, and type of organization. A quantitative approach, utilizing questionnaires and interviews, was employed as the main method of collecting data. The sample consists of 141 service-based employers and 167 professional employees. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire items were tested using the Cronbach Alpha and the SEM CFA approaches. The results demonstrate that: (1) 80 percent of the employers lauded on leadership, management, critical thinking, problem solving, social skills and teamwork skills; (2) only 28 percent of the employers require entrepreneurial skills when recruiting new staff; and (3) there is no significant difference in the generic skills required in relation to the size, type, and ownership of the employer. On the other hand, the generic skills rated highly by the employees in the survey are teamwork skills. Entrepreneurship skills received a low rating from both employers and employees during the survey. The implications of this study include a call for further research to determine effective teaching and learning strategies in developing the designated GS, especially for skills that are highly sought after by employers. The originality of this study stems from the lack of literature that directly examines the need for GS among professional employees in the public and private sectors.

Keywords: Generic skills; Jordan Need analysis model; professional employees; higher education institutions; leadership skills; entrepreneurial skills

ABSTRAK

Tujuan utama kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti perbezaan kemahiran generik (KG) yang diperlukan oleh majikan dan yang dikuasai oleh pekerja profesional di Malaysia. Kajian ini juga bertujuan untuk mendapatkan perbandingan dari segi KG yang diperlukan dalam kalangan majikan berdasarkan saiz, jenis organisasi dan jenis pemilikan. Kaedah soal selidik digunakan sebagai kaedah utama mengumpul data dan temu bual digunakan untuk sokongan data kuantitatif. Sampel kajian terdiri dari 141 majikan dari sektor perkhidmatan dan 167 orang pekerja profesional. Kebolehpercayaan dan kesahan instrumen telah dapat dibuktikan melalui nilai Koeffisien Cronbach dan teknik Permodelan Persamaan Berstruktur (SEM) melalui Analisis Faktor Pengesahan (CFA). Hasil kajian menunjukkan: (1) 80 peratus majikan meletakkan aspek kepimpinan, pengurusan, pemikiran kritikal dan penyelesaian masalah, kemahiran sosial dan kerja berpasukan sebagai keperluan utama; (2) hanya 28 peratus majikan meletakkan aspek keusahawanan sebagai kriteria semasa perekrutan pekerja baru; dan (3) tidak wujud perbezaan keperluan aspek KG dalam kalangan majikan yang berbeza saiz, jenis organisasi dan jenis pemilikan. Walau bagaimanapun, aspek KG yang sangat diperlukan bagi pekerja profesional adalah aspek kerja berpasukan. Aspek keusahawanan diletakkan sebagai pilihan terakhir oleh kedua-dua majikan dan juga pekerja profesional. Implikasi kajian ini menunjukkan terdapatnya keperluan bagi kajian lanjutan bagi menentukan strategi yang efektif dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran KG terutama sekali kemahiran yang telah dikenal pasti sangat diperlukan oleh majikan. Keaslian kajian ini tercetus dari kurangnya kajian lepas yang berkaitan dengan isu keperluan KG dalam kalangan pekerja profesional dalam sektor awam dan swasta.

Kata kunci: Kemahiran generik; model analisis Jordan Need; pekerja profesional, institusi pendidikan tinggi; kemahiran kepimpinan; kemahiran keusahawanan

 


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