Effects of Human Needs Based on the Integration of Needs as Stipulated in Maqasid Syariah and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs on Zakah Distribution Efficiency of Asnaf Assistance Business Program

Maheran Zakaria, Nur Ain Abdul Malek

Abstract


ABSTRACT

This study examines the effects of human needs based on the integration of needs as stipulated in Maqasid Syariah and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs on zakah distribution efficiency. Human needs in this study are evaluated based on the integration of 5 elements of human needs as stipulated in Maqasid Syariah and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The elements are religion and self-actualization, physical-self and safety, knowledge and social, family and self-esteem, and finally, wealth and physiology. Approximately 300 sets of questionnaires were sent to zakah recipients of Asnaf Assistance Business Program conducted by Majlis Agama Islam Kelantan (MAIK). From this number, 270 people return their responses. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling of AMOSS 20. The findings indicate that the integration of 5 elements of human needs as stipulated in Maqasid Syariah and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs positively affects zakah distribution efficiency. Hence, the study provides an insight to zakah institutions that the distribution of zakah should not confine to fulfilling recipients’ monetary needs but also on non-monetary needs such as enhancing level of religiosity, fostering socialization, training and motivation as well as uplifting living status.

Keywords: Maqasid Syariah; Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; zakah distribution efficiency; asnaf

ABSTRAK

Kajian ini menguji kesan keperluan asas manusia berdasarkan penggabungan antara keperluan Maqasid Syariah dengan hiraki keperluan asas Maslow terhadap keberkesanan agihan zakat. Keperluan manusia dalam kajian ini dinilai berdasarkan penggabungan antara 5 elemen keperluan manusia seperti yang tercatit dalam Maqasid Syariah dan hiraki keperluan asas Maslow. Elemen-elemen tersebut adalah agama dan kepuasan kendiri, fisikal-diri dan keselamatan, pengetahuan dan sosial, keluarga dan harga diri, serta harta dan fisiologi. Sebanyak 300 soalselidik telah dihantar kepada penerima zakat bagi program Bantuan Perniagaan Asnaf yang dikendalikan oleh Majlis Agama Islam Kelantan (MAIK). Daripada jumlah tersebut 270 orang memberi maklum balas. Data dianalisis menggunakan Pemodelan Persamaan Berstruktur AMOSS 20. Hasil kajian menunjukkan penggabungan antara keperluan manusia yang terdapat dalam Maqasid Syariah dan hiraki keperluan Maslow memberi kesan positif terhadap keberkesanan agihan zakat. Sehubungan itu, penemuan memberi petunjuk kepada institusi zakat bahawa bantuan zakat tidak seharusnya terhad kepada bentuk kewangan tetapi boleh juga diagihkan dalam bentuk keperluan lain seperti yang mempertingkatkan tahap keagamaan, mempereratkan hubungan sosial, memberi kursus dan motivasi serta menambahbaik taraf kehidupan.

Kata kunci: Maqasid syariah; hiraki keperluan asas Maslow; keberkesanan agihan zakat; zakat.


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