Model Sistem Viable dan Pelaksanaan Dasar: Kajian Kes Inkubator Perniagaan Berstatus MSC

Khairul Akmaliah Adham, Mohd Fuaad Said, Hasmiah Kasimin, Nur Atiqah Abdullah

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Model sistem viable (viable system model, VSM) adalah sebuah kerangka konseptual yang boleh menyokong pemerihalan hubungan antara unit dalam sesuatu sistem. Kebanyakan penyelidikan VSM tertumpu kepada kajian sistem-sistem dalam sesebuah organisasi tetapi penggunaan VSM dalam kajian yang melibatkan sistem pelaksanaan dasar adalah sangat kurang. Berlainan dengan sistem dalaman sebuah organisasi, sistem pelaksanaan sesuatu dasar adalah lebih kompleks kerana ia melibatkan lebih banyak agensi dan institusi yang mempunyai fungsi dan tujuan yang berbeza dan di luar kawalan organisasi. Kajian ini mengisi jurang penyelidikan ini dengan menguji penggunaan kerangka VSM ke atas satu pelaksanaan dasar, iaitu Program Inkubator Perniagaan berstatus MSC. Program ini adalah satu dasar di bawah dasar induk pembangunan industri IT di Malaysia, iaitu Program MSC. Dengan menggunakan kerangka VSM serta gabungan metodologi kajian kes dan analisis kandungan, kajian ini memerihalkan fungsi-fungsi dalam Program Inkubator Perniagaan Berstatus MSC dan fungsi-fungsi setiap agensi yang terlibat serta menerangkan hubungan antara agensi berkaitan. Hasil analisis mendapati kerangka VSM boleh diguna pakai dalam memerihal dan menerangkan sistem pelaksanaan dasar yang kompleks. Namun begitu, penggunaan kerangka VSM dalam menilai keberkesanan pelaksanaan sesuatu dasar memerlukan maklumat pelaksanaan yang lebih menyeluruh, berkenaan dengan tujuan dan pengukuran yang objektif bagi perlaksanaan dasar.
ABSTRACT
Viable system model (VSM) is a conceptual framework that can be utilized to describe relationships among units within a system. Most research that focused on VSM system examines its operation within an organization, with very few studies, analyzing its utility in explaining a policy implementation. Unlike the internal systems of an organization, policy implementation is more complex because it involves agencies and institutions that have different functions and purposes beyond the control of the organization. This study is to fulfill this research gap by examining the use of VSM framework in a policy implementation called the MSC-status Incubator Program. The program is one of the policies within the MSC Program, which is the anchor policy for the development of IT industry in Malaysia. By utilizing a combination of VSM framework and case studies and content analysis methodologies, this study described the functions of the MSC-Status Incubator Program and of all agencies involved and the relationships among the relevant agencies. Results of analysis found that the framework can be applied to describe and explain a complex policy system. However, the use of VSM framework to assess the effectiveness of a policy implementation requires more comprehensive information on the intent and objective measures of the policy implementation.


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