HALANGAN KEPADA PENDIDIKAN DAN LATIHAN BAGI WANITA KURANG UPAYA FIZIKAL DI MALAYSIA (Barriers to education and training for Malaysian women with physical impairment)

Aizan Sofia Amin, Fauziah Ibrahim, Noordeyana Tambi, Jamiah Manap, Norulhuda Sarnon

Abstract


Semenjak zaman sebelum merdeka lagi, kerajaan telah membentuk dasar, perundangan dan polisi yang berkait dengan Orang Kurang Upaya (OKU) tetapi OKU di Malaysia masih mengalami banyak halangan terutamanya dalam pendidikan dan latihan. Kajian melibatkan wanita kurang upaya Malaysia dalam pendidikan dan latihan amat sedikit walaupun ketidakupayaan dikatakan mempunyai hubungan dengan gender dan budaya. Sehubungan dengan itu, kertas kajian ini dibentuk untuk meneroka bagaimana wanita Malaysia dengan ketidakupayaan fizikal melalui pengalaman dalam pendidikan dan latihan. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif sepenuhnya yang melibatkan mengumpulan data melalui temubual secara mendalam terhadap33 orang wanita Malaysia yang mempunyai ketidakupayaan fizikal (pergerakan). Seramai 17 wanita Melayu, 8 berbangsa Cina dan 8 berbangsa India telah ditemubual sebanyak 2 kali dalam tempoh 6 bulan. Majoriti wanita berasal daripada keluarga berpendapatan rendah luar bandar. Hasil kajian menunjukkan ramai wanita mempunyai akses yang terhad dalam pendidikan dan latihan disebabkan oleh halangan persekitaran dan sikap masyarakat yang diburukkan lagi oleh interaksi kompleks di antara faktor individu, keluarga, sosiobudaya dan gender.

 

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The Malaysian government has developed significant disability provision, policies and legislations since the period of colonialism but disabled people still encounter major barriers in education and training. Research involving Malaysian disabled women in terms of education and training is very limited although disability is argued to have some relation to gender and culture. This paper therefore sets to explore how Malaysian women with physical impairment experience their opportunity for education and training. This study used a full qualitative research approach in which the data was collected from in-depth interviews with 33 Malaysian women with physical (mobility) impairment. Over a period of 6 months, 17 Malays, 8 Chinese and 8 Indian women were interviewed twice in Peninsular Malaysia. The majority of women came from low-income and rural families. The findings demonstrated that many of the women had limited access to education and training due to structural and attitudinal barriers. Hence, their situation was exacerbated by complex interactions between individual, familial, sociocultural and gender factors.


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