TRANSFORMASI DOKTRIN KETENTERAAN DAN IMPLIKASINYA TERHADAP KESELAMATAN NASIONAL INDONESIA ERA REFORMASI (1998-2017) (The Military Doctrine Transformation and Its Implication Toward Indonesia National Security during the Reformation Era (1998-2017))

Kushananto ., Sity Daud

Abstract


Pada Era Reformasi, tentera Indonesia melakukan tiga kali transformasi doktrin. Doktrin ketenteraan sebelum reformasi ditetapkan pada masa Orde Baru memperkasa pelaksanaan dua peranan ketenteraan. Dalam perkembangannya, dua peranan ketenteraan tersebut telah menimbulkan penyimpangan hala terhadap sistem politik nasional dan menjejaskan profesionalisme tentera. Oleh itu, pada awal reformasi Indonesia mengalami peningkatan ancaman keselamatan nasional. Kajian ini membincangkan implikasi transformasi doktrin ketenteraan terhadap keselamatan nasional pada Era Reformasi. Kajian menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan melaksanakan temu bual semi terstruktur daripada sembilan orang informan terpilih. Data dianalisis melalui perspektif neoklasikal realism. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan doktrin ketenteraan mengalami transformasi dalam aspek organisasi, profesionalisme, perspektif ancaman dan pola operasi. Implementasi transformasi doktrin ketenteraan untuk mewujudkan keselamatan nasional ditentukan oleh persepsi kepimpinan nasional terhadap politik domestik, geopolitik serantau dan faktor sistemik serta dasar dalam pembinaan dan penggunaan ketenteraan. Kajian menyimpulkan bahawa transformasi doktrin ketenteraan sebagai bentuk penyesuaian terhadap perkembangan politik domestik, geopolitik kawasan dan faktor sistemik mampu mengembalikan stabiliti keselamatan nasional daripada pelbagai ancaman kedaulatan negara, keutuhan wilayah dan keselamatan bangsa.

Kata kunci : Doktrin ketenteraan, era reformasi, keselamatan nasional, neoklasikal realism, transformasi.

(The Military Doctrine Transformation and Its Implication Toward Indonesia National Security during the Reformation Era (1998-2017))

During the Reformation Era, the Indonesian military has made three transformations of doctrine. The previous military doctrine established during the New Order reinforced the dual function of military. In its development, the two army roles have caused deviations within the national political system and reduced the military’s professionalism. Therefore, at the beginning of Indonesia reform experienced an increase in national security threats. This study discusses the implications of the military doctrine transformation toward the national security during the Reformation Era. The study used qualitative methods by conducting semi-structured interviews on nine selected informants. The data were analyzed from the perspective of Neoclassical Realism. The results of this study suggest that military doctrine is transformed into organizational, professionalism, threat perspectives and patterns of military operations aspects. Implementation of the military doctrine transformation in the realization of national security is determined by the perception of national leadership on domestic politics, geopolitics and the systemic factors and policies in the fostering and use of military power. The study concludes that the transformation of military doctrine as a form of adjustment to the development of domestic politics, geopolitical areas and systemic factors can restore the stability of national security from various threats to the state sovereignty, territorial integrity and the safety of the nation.

Keywords: Military doctrine, reform era, national security, neoclassical realism, transformation.


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