Penentu keterlibatan nelayan pesisir pantai dalam aktiviti bukan pertanian di Kuala Kedah, Kedah (Determinants of participation in non-agricultural activities among coastal fisherman in Kuala Kedah, Kedah)

Ahmad Zubir Ibrahim, Abd.Rahim Anuar


Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji keterlibatan golongan nelayan di dalam aktiviti bukan pertanian. Kajian ini dilakukan di kalangan 200 orang nelayan pesisir pantai di Kuala Kedah, Kedah. Analisis data kajian ini menggunakan analisa logit. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa ciri-ciri individu (umur, jantina, pendidikan dan pengalaman) dan ciri-ciri isi rumah (bilangan tangungan, perbelanjaan ke atas pendapatan, pendapatan pasangan dan sumbangan anak-anak) memberi kesan secara langsung ke atas keterlibatan nelayan di dalam aktiviti bukan pertanian. Kajian ini juga turut mencadangkan pembangunan keusahawanan di komuniti nelayan sebagai usaha mempertingkatkan keterlibatan golongan ini dalam aktiviti bukan pertanian terutama dalam industri pemprosesan hasil laut.


Kata kunci: aktiviti bukan pertanian, ciri individu, ciri isi rumah, nelayan, pembangunan usahawan, pesisir pantai


This article aims to investigate the involvement of fishermen in non-agricultural activities. The study was conducted among 200 coastal fishermen in Kuala Kedah, Kedah.  Data used in this study is obtained through the logit analysis. The study found that the characteristics of the individual (age, sex, education and experience) and household characteristics (number of household, income expenditure, spouse income and remitance) are directly affecting involvement fisherman in non-agricultural activities. The study also suggested the development of entrepreneurship in fishing communities as an effort in enhancing their involvement in non-agricultural activities especially in marine product processing industry.


Keywords: non-agricultural activities, individual characteristics, household characteristics, fisherman, entrepreneurship development, coastal areas

Full Text:



Adam RH (1993) Non-farm income and inequality in rural Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review. 32(4), 1187-1198.

Adam RH (2001) Nonfarm income, inequality and poverty in rural Egypt and Jordan [Cited 12 March 2011]. Available from:

Aikaeli J (2010) Determinants of rural income in Tanzania: An empirical approach. Research report 10/4. Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA).

Babatunde R (2013) On-farm and off-farm works: Complement or substitute? Evidence from rural Nigeria. International Conference of the African Association of Agricultural Economists Hammamet, Tunisia, 22-25 September.

Bezabih M, Gebreegziabher Z, Grebremedhin L, Kohlin G (2010) Participation in off-farm employment, rainfall patterns and rate of time preferences. Environment for Development Paper Series.

Bjornsen HM, Mishra AK (2012) Off-farm employment and farming efficiency in modern agriculture:

A dynamic panel analysis. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association’s joint annual meeting, pp 31. Washington.

de Brauw A, Giles J (2008) Migrant opportunity and the educational attainment of youth in rural China. Policy Research Working Paper 4526, Washington DC, The World Bank.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (1998) [Cited 20 Jun 2010]. Available from:

Ghafoor A, Hussain M, Naseer K, Ishaque M, Baloch MH (2010) Factors affecting income and saving of small farming households in sargodha district of the Punjab, Pakistan. Pak. J. Agri., Agril. Engg., Vet. Sci., 26(2), 27-35.

Greene WH (2000) Econometric Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.

Hamza R (2007). Non agricultural rural activities preliminary results from selected area of Syiria, Working paper 28, National Agricultural Policy Center (NAPC). March.

Haggblade S (2006) Rural non-farm dynamic. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

Ho S (1979) Decentralized industrialization and rural development: Evidence from Taiwan. Economic Development and Cultural Change 28(1), 77-96.

Jabatan Perikanan Malaysia (2016) Prosedur dan zon-zon perikanan [Cited 24 November 2016] Available from:

Jabatan Statistik Malaysia (2010). [Cited 24 November 2016] Available from:

Lass D, Gempesaw C (1992) The supply of off-farm labor: A random coefficient approach. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 74, 400-408.

Lembaga Kemajuan Ikan Malaysia (LKIM) (2009) Banci Sendi 2007/2008 (sosio ekonomi, nelayan dan isi rumah). Lembaga Kemajuan Ikan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

Malaysia (2011) Rancangan Malaysia kesebelas. Jabatan Perdana Menteri, Putrajaya.

Mishra A, and B Goodwin (1997) Farm income variability and the supply of off-farm lahor. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79, 880-887.

Ogbanje EC, Chidebelu SAND, Nweze NJ (2015) An evaluation of off farm work and household income among small-scale farmers in North Central Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability 7(2), 227-244.

Reardon T (1997) Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural non-farm labor market in Africa. World Development 25, 735-747.

Roslan Abd Hakim, Siti Hadijah Che Mat (2011) Non-farm activities and time to exit poverty: A case study in Kedah, Malaysia. World Review of Business Research 1, 113-124.

Roslan Abd Hakim, Siti Hadijah (2011) Determinants of farmers’s participatipation in off-farm employment: A case study in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 1(2), 27-37.

Siti Hadijah Che Mat, Roslan Abdul Hakim (2010) Kesan pendapatan bukan pertanian ke atas kemiskinan: Kajian kes petani di Kedah. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia 44, 101-107.

Thieme S (2003) Savings and credit association and remittances: The case of far west nepalese labour migrants in Delhi, India. Working Paper 39, Employment Sector, International Labour Office, Geneva.

Tokle J, HuffmanW (1991) Local economic conditions and wage labor decisions of farm and rural non-farm couples. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73, 652-670.

Ugbajah MO (2011) Gender analysis of structure and effects of access to financial services among rural farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal Agricultural Sciences 2(2), 107-111.

Wooldridge JM (2002) Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. The MIT Press, Massachusetts.

Zhu N, Luo X (2006) Nonfarm activity and rural income inequality: A case study of two provinces in

China. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3811, January.


  • There are currently no refbacks.