Independent learning of English literature students: Learning from an Iranian experience

Sara Kashefian- Naeeini, Ramlee Mustapha


Independent learning is imperative for it can facilitate significant and faster development of a nation’s human
resource. Over the last two decades, more active roles are given to language learners and independent learning is
taking momentum in the area of language learning. This study sought to investigate independent learning among
university students of the Shiraz University majoring in English Literature at the department of Foreign Languages
and Linguistics. Analysis of variance and t-test for independent samples were conducted to compare independent
learning among students with different learning backgrounds. It was found that professional status influenced
students’ independent learning in favour of those students who had an occupation. However, other learner variables
did not have such an impact on students’ independent learning. This finding might be instructive for Malaysia’s
institutions specializing in English and other foreign languages.

Keywords: human resource development, independent learning, Iran, language learners, learner variables,
professional status

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