Exploring the Pattern of Sexual Harassment in Lagos State Higher Institutions: A Structural Model (Meneroka Corak Gangguan Seksual di Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Negeri Lagos: Model Struktur)



This study examined the pattern of sexual harassment in higher institutions in Lagos state. Hypothesising, unlike researchers that there shall be a direct relationship between all identifi ed categories of sexual harassment behaviours thus: physical, verbal, non-verbal and quid pro quo and sexual harassment; and the report of sexual harassment is predicted by gender, physical sexual behaviour and quid pro quo. Six hundred students randomly selected from six higher institutions in Lagos State, responded to Pattern of Sexual Harassment Questionnaire (PSHQ). Results were analysed by the use of path analysis. The produced model adequately fi t the hypothesised model; the chi-square result χ2 (6) = 13.02, p = 0.043 < 0.05, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) 0.044 < 0.06, the Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) 0.99, Adjusted GFI (AGFI) 0.97, Normed fi t index (NFI) 0.99, Comparative fi t index (CFI) 0.98 and Incremental fi t index (IFI) 0.100 all > 0.9 all indicate suffi cient good fi tness of the model. Based on the fi ndings of the study counsellors are challenged to become more responsive than before to counselling needs of students in order to discourage sexual harassment and encourage reporting of sexual harassment.


Sexual harassment; quid pro quo; physical harassment; verbal harassment; non-verbal harassment

Full Text:



Abe, Iyabo. 2012. Defi ning and awareness of sexual harassment among selected university students in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 3(3): 212-218.

Akannam, Tina. 2013. Alleged sexual harassment of pregnant woman: Husband wants prof’s appointment terminated. Vanguard Newspaper.

Brooks, L. & Perot, A.R. 1999. Reporting sexual harassment: Exploring a predictive model. Psychology of Women Quarterly 15: 31-47.

Byrne, B.M. 2009. Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Application, and Programming. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Denga, D.I. & Denga Hannah. 2004. Sexual harassment: A student’s view from a nigerian university. The African Symposium 4(1).

Hill, G.N. & Hill, K.T. 2005. Sexual harassment: (online report). http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/sexual+harassmentEqualEmploymenOpportunity Commission http://www.eeoc.gov/. Accessed on 13 August 2012.

http:// www.academicjournals.org/INGOJA Accessed 13 August 2013.

Hu, L. & Bentler, P.M. 1999. Cut off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling 6(1): 1-55.

Kane-Urrabazo, C. 2007. Sexual harassment in the workplace: It is your problem. Journal of Nursing Management 15(6):608-613.

Ladebo Olugbenga J. 2003. Sexual harassment in academia in Nigeria: how real? Periodical: African Sociological Review 7(1): 117-130.

Mackinnon Catharine A. & Reva B. Siegel (Ed). 2003. Directions in Sexual Harassment Law. New Haven: Yale University Press.

MacKinnon Catharine A. & Siegel, Reva B. (Ed). 2004. Directions in Sexual Harassment Law. New Haven, Conn. [u.a.]: Yale Univ. Press.

MacKinnon Catharine, A. 1979. Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination. (Bandar): Yale University Press.

Noah, Yusuf. 2008. Experience of sexual harassment at work by female employees in a Nigerian work environment. International NGO Journal 3(7): 122-127.

Okoro, F.I. & Osawemen Obozokhai. 2005. Sexual harassment: the experience of out-of-school teenagers in Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health 9(3):118-127.

Suhr, D. 2008. Step Your Way through Path Analysis. http://www.

wuss.org. Retrieved on 24 November 2013.

Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. 2001. Using Multivariate Statistics. 4th Ed. MA: Allyn & Bacon. U.S Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1980. Discrimination because of sex under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act as amended: Adoption of interim guidelines sexual harassment. Federal Register, 45, 25024-25025.

Webb, L. Susan. 1994. Excerpted from Shockwaves: The global impact of sexual harassment. New York. Young, L. Ellie; Allen Melissa, & Ashbaker, Y. Betty. 2004.

Sexual harassment in helping children at home and school II: Handouts for families and educators. (online series). The National Association of School Psychologists. www.nasponline.org. 13 August 2013


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

© Malaysian Journal of Education | Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia
ISSN 2180-0782 | eISSN: 2600-8823