Perubahan Pencapaian Mata Pelajaran Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi melalui Pembelajaran Berasaskan Projek dengan Scaffolding (The Change of Achievements in Information and Communication Technology Subjects through Project-Based Learning with Scaffoldin



This study was conducted to examine the implementation of project-based learning approach (PjBL) on the achievement of students in form 4 in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) subjects. The study involved two sets of modules, modules PjBL with scaffolding and an existing module (Intel Unit Plan). PjBL with scaffolding module is designed and developed with an emphasis on specifi c instructional strategies, scaffolding and existing PjBL module using the Intel Unit planning templates. The research design was nonequivalent control group design quasi experimental, involving one treatment group and one control group. The sample consisted of 47 students from form 4, in two schools in the Kerian district, respectively 27 students in the treatment group and 20 students in the control group. Statistical test performed was an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at the signifi cance level p < 0.05. ANCOVA analysis showed that there were signifi cant differences in the level of treatment group achievements with strength of the relationship between the approach and the achievement, ω2 = 0.58. This indicates that the mean of the experimental group over 58% percentage the control group. In conclusion, the results show that the PjBL with scaffolding approaches can help students to improve their achievement. Therefore, it is recommended that technology-based learning such as ICT subjects, applying the PjBL with scaffolding as one of the alternative teaching methods.


Information and communication technology (ICT); project-based learning (PjBL); scaffolding; quasi experimental

Full Text:



Abdulaal, R.M., Al-Bahi, A.M., Soliman, A.Y. & Iskanderani, F.I. 2011. Design and implementation of a project-based active/cooperative engineering design course for freshmen. European Journal of Engineering Education 36(4): 391-402. doi:10.1080/03043797.2011.598498.

Ai-therapy web site. 2013. Statistic. (Online). Accessed on Jan. 2, 2013.

Alber, R. 2011. 6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use with Your Students.

(Online). Accessed on Dis.10, 2012.

Alibali, M. 2006. Does visual scaffolding facilitate students’ mathematics learning? Evidence from early algebra. (online). asp?ID=54. Accessed on Dis. 10, 2012.

Alozie, N., Eklund, J., Rogat, A. & Krajcik, J. 2010. Genetics in the 21st Century: The benefi ts & challenges of incorporating a project-based genetics unit in biology classrooms. American Biology Teacher (National Association of Biology Teachers) 72(4): 225-230. doi:10.1525/abt.2010.72.4.5.

Anghileri, J. 2006. Scaffolding practices that enhance mathematics learning. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education 9(1): 33-52. doi:10.1007/s10857-006-9005.

Atkinson, R. 1999. Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, its time to accept other success criteria. International Journal of Project Management 17(6): 337-342.

Bahagian Teknologi Pendidikan Negeri (BTPN). 2007. Laporan Pelaksanaan Projek Rintis. Sabah: BTPN Bahagian Pendidikan Guru (BPG), (Jun, 2007).

Baran, M. & Maskan, A. 2010. The effect of project-based learning on pre-service physics teachers’ electrostatic achievements. Cypriot Journal of Educational Science 5: 243-257.

Barak, M. & Shachar, A. 2008. Project in technology education and fostering learning: The potential and its realization. Journal Sciences Education Technology 17: 285-296.

Baş, G. & Beyhan, Ö. 2010. Effects of multiple intelligences supported project-based learning on students’ achievement levels and attitudes towards English lesson. Education 2(3).

Batool, Q.M. 2011. Research in business effect of project and lecture methods of teaching on student achievement in social studies. Interdiciplinary Journal of Contemporary: 637-645.

Bell, S. 2010. The future project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for. Leadership 83(March, 2012): 39-43. doi:10.1080/00098650903505415.

Best, J.W. & Kahn, J.V. 1986. Research in Education. London:

Prentice Hall.

Best, J.W. & Kahn, J.V. 2006. Research in Education, 10th Ed. USA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Biggs, J. & Tang, C. 2011. Teaching for Quality Learning at University: The society for Research into Higher Education. 4th ed. England: McGraw Hill.

Blumenfeld, P., Soloway, A., Marx, R.W., Krajcik, J.S., Guzdial, M. & Palinscar, A. 1991. Motivating project based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist 26(383): 369-398.

Boaler, J. 1997. Experiencing School Mathematics: Teaching Styles, Sex, and Settings. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

Boaler, J. 2002. Learning from teaching: Exploring the relationship between reform curriculum and equity. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 33(4): 239-258.

Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. 1963. Experimental and Quasiexperimental

Designs for Research. Chicago, IL: RandMcNally.

Cennamo, K. & Kalk, D. 2005. Real World Instructional Design. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth.

Chinowsky, P.S., Brown, H., Szajnman, A. & Realph, A. 2006. Developing knowledge landscape through project-based learning. Issues in Engineering (April): 118-125.

Chang, W.-L. & Sun, Y.-C. 2009. Scaffolding and web concordancers as support for language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning 22(4): 283-302. doi:10.1080/09588220903184518.

Cohen, L. & Manion, L. 1994. Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge. 5 Perubahan.indd 39 21/05/2015 09:20:31 40

Cresswel, J.W. 2008. Educational Research: Planning Conducting and evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. Perason: Merill Prentice Hall.

Driscoll. 2000. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology Lev Vygotsky: Social Constructivist. (online). Accessed on Oct.

, 2011.

Du, J., Havard, B. & Adams, J. 2008. Chapter 2.42: A projectbased

learning approach: Online group collaborative learning. In information Communication Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications 1143-1152, edited by Craig, V.S. USA: IGI Global.

Fraenkel, J.R & Wallen, N.E. 2009. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 7th ed. Boston: Mc. Graw. Hill, Inc.

Fund, Z. 2007. The effects of scaffolded computerized science problem-solving on achievement outcomes : a comparative study of support programs, 410-424. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2007.00226.x.

Gall, M.D., Gall, J.P. & Borg, W.R. 2010. Applying Educational Research: How to Read, Do, and Use Research to Solve Problems of Practice. 10th ed. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Gay, L.R. 1987. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Colombus: Merrill.

George Lucas Educational Foundation (GLEF) website. 2001. Project−Based Learning Research. (online). Accessed on Dis. 10, 2011.

Gerogiannis, V. 2006. A project-based learning approach for teaching ERP concepts. International Journal 12(8)

Gülbahar, Y. & Tinmaz, H. 2006. Implementing project-based learning and e-portfolio Assessment in an Undergraduate Course. Journal of Research on Technology in Education 5191: 309-327.

Guthrie, C. 2008. Towards greater learner control : Web supported

project-based learning. Journal of Information Systems 21(1): 121-131.

Hannafin, M.J. & Hill, J. 2007. Chapter 40: ResourceBased Learning. (online book)

Accessed on Mac 12, 2011.

Henning, J.R., Verhaegh, J. & Resing, W.C.M. 2011. Electronic series completion task. Educational & Child Psychology28(2): 85-100.

Hmelo, C.E., Gotterer, G.S. & Bransford, J.D. 1997. A theorydriven

approach to assessing the cognitive effects of PBL. Educational Research 1: 387-408.

Intel Corporation. 2006. Harnessing the Power of Project-Based

Learning. Intel: Intel Teach to the Future (online)

Accessed on Oct. 18, 2011.

Kanter, D.E. & Konstantopoulos, S. 2010. The impact of a projectbased

science curriculum on minority student achievement, attitudes, and careers: The effects of teacher content and pedagogical content knowledge and inquiry-based practices.

Science Education: doi:10.1002/sce.20391.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. 2001. Pembelajaran Secara

Konstruktivisme. Kuala Lumpur: Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (online). Accessed on March 28, 2012.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. 2006. Project-Based Learning

Handbook. Kuala Lumpur: Bahagian Teknologi Pendidikan (online)


Handbook.pdf . Accessed on Nov. 23, 2011.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. 2007. Modul Latihan Guru Bestari Program Intel Teach® Intel Malaysia, Pembelajaran Berasaskan Projek. Putrajaya: Bahagian Pendidikan Guru. [Slaid PowerPoint].

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. 2010. Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia, Jemaah Nazir dan Jaminan Kualiti. (online). Accessed on Nov. 23, 2011.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. 2012. Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan 2013-2025. Kuala Lumpur: (online). les/fi le/PPP/Preliminary-BlueprintBM.pdf . Accessed on Nov. 23, 2013.

Kotnour, T. 1999. A learning framework for project management.

Project Management Journal (June)

Kutner, M.H., Nachtsheim, C.J., Neter, J. & Li, W. 2005. Applied Linear Statistical Model. 5th ed. New York: McGrawHill.

Kwok, P.L.Y. & Tan, C.Y.G. 2004. Scaffolding Supports in Project-based Learning through Knowledge Community (KC): Collaborative Learning Strategies and Pedagogical Facilitation. 8th GCCCE2004 Conference Proceeding.

Lim Chong Hin. 2007. Penyelidikan Pendidikan Pendekatan Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif. Malaysia: Mc Graw Hill. SDN. BHD.

Mann, P.S. 2004. Introductary Statistic. United State of America: Wiley & Son Inc.

Marx, R.W., Blumenfeld, P.C., Krajcik, J.S. & Soloway, E. 1997. Enacting project-based science: Challenges for practice and policy. Elementary School Journal (97): 341-358.

Mcleod, S.A. 2007. Simply Psychology: Vygotsky (online). Accessed on Jan. 12, 2012.

McMillan, J.H. 2008. Educational Research: Fundamentals for the Consumer. Boston: Allyin and Bacon.

McMillan, J.H. & Schumacher, S. 2010. Research in Education: Evidence Based Inquiry. 7th ed. New Jersey: Pearson. Education Incorporated.

Mergendoller, J. R., Maxwell, N. L., & Bellisimo, Y. 2006. The effectiveness of problem-based instruction: A comparative study of instructional methods and student characteristics, The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning 1(2): 49-69.

Mergendoller, J.R. & Thomas, J.W. 2005. Managing Project Based Learning: Principles from the Field. (online). Accessed on Oct. 22, 2011.

Mert Uyangör, S. 2012. The effect of project–based learning on teaching of polygon and plane geometry unit. New Educational Review 29(3): 212-223.

Minter, M.K. 2011. Learner-centered (LCI) vs . teacher-centered (TCI) instruction : A classroom management perspective. Journal of Business Education 4(5): 55-63.

Moursund, D. 2012. Outline of the Workshop or Short Course. (online). Accessed on Mac 28, 2012.

Nandi. K. 2012. Understanding and Quantifying Effect Size. (online). Accessed on Jan. 3, 2013.

Noraini Idris. 2010. Penyelidikan dalam Pendidikan. Malaysia: Mc Graw Hill. SDN. BHD.

Olejnik, S. & Algina, J. 2003. Effect sizes are computed using the methods outlined in the paper. Generalized Eta and Omega Squared Statistics: Measures of Effect Size for Some Common Research Designs. Psychological Methods 8(4): 434-447. (online).

Jan 12, 2013.

Panitia TMK. 2010. Analisis Strenght, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat (SWOT). Laporan Panitia SMK Kuala Kurau.

Peterson, C. 2003. Bringing ADDIE to life: Instructional design at its best. Journal of Multimedia and Hypermedia 12(3):227-241.

Pol, J. Van De, Volman, M. & Beishuizen, J. 2010. Scaffolding in teacher – student interaction : A decade of research. Educational Psychology

Review 271–26. doi:10.1007/s10648-010-9127-6.

Puntambekar, S. & Hübscher, R. 2005. Scaffolding in complex learning environments: What we have gained and what we have missed Scaffolding in complex learning environments: What we have gained and what we have missed. Learning 860: 1-39.

Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (PPK). 2006. Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran ICT. Dokumen Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (KPM).

Ravitz, J. 2008. Does Project Based Learning Help Foster Communities of Learners in Small US High Schools? Jason Ravitz Buck Institute for Education Novato, CA USA Note.

Robinson, J. 2013. Project-based learning: improving student engagement and performance in the laboratory. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry 405(1): 7-13. doi:10.1007/s00216-012-6473-x.

Stripling, B., Commitante, A. & Abrahams, C. 2009. Project based learning: Inspiring middle school students to engage in deep and active learning. Resources for Social Studies and Science Exit Projects Guide. Chambers Streert, New York. (online). nal.pdf. Dis 5, 2011.

Tanious, C. M. 2012. Mindful strengths development: Leveraging students’ strengths for 21st century learning and leadership. ProQuest LLC.

Thomas, J.W. 2000. A Review Research on Project-Based Learning. (online) Accessed on October 11, 2011

Tiong, H.B., Netto-Shek, J. & Cheong, C.S. 2004. Managing Project Work in Schools: Issues and Innovative Practices. Singapore: Prentice Hall.

Unit Peperiksaan. 2010. Analisis Keputusan Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia. Laporan Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri, Perak.

Van Der Stuyf, R.R. 2002. Scaffolding as a teaching strategy. Adolescent Learning and Development: 1-14. Vega, A. & Brown, C. 2013. The implementation of project based learning. National Forum Of Educational Administration & Supervision Journal 30(2): 4-29.

Verma, A.K., Dickerson, D. & McKinney, S. 2011. Engaging Students in STeM careers with Project-Based Learning — MarineTech Project. Technology and Engineering Teacher (September): 25-32.

Wang, Q. 2008. A generic model for guiding the integration of ICT into teaching and learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International 45(4): 411-419. doi:10.1080/14703290802377307.

Wilhelm, J. 2014. Project-based instruction with future STEM educators: An interdisciplinary approach. Journal of College Science Teaching 43(4): 80-90.

Wilhelm, J., Sherrod, S. & Walters, K. 2008. Project-based learning environments: Challenging preservice teachers to act in the moment. Journal of Educational Research 101(4): 220-233.

Wood, D., Bruner, J.S. & Ross, G. 1976. The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 17(2): 89-100. doi:10.1111/1469-7610. ep11903728.

Yalçınkaya, E., Taştan-Kırık, Ö., Boz, Y. & Yıldıran, D. 2012. Is case-based learning an effective teaching strategy to challenge students’ alternative conceptions regarding chemical kinetics? Research In Science & Technological Education 30(2): 151-172. doi:10.1080/02635143.2012.

Zhang, Y. 2011. Supporting adult learners’ use of reading strategies through effective literacy scaffolding. International Forum of Teaching and Studies 7(2): 7-8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

© Malaysian Journal of Education | Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia
ISSN 2180-0782 | eISSN: 2600-8823