The Efficiency of Using the ‘Learning Cycle’ Strategy in Acquiring Arabic Grammatical Concepts: A Study Applied to Grade-Nine Students in Jordan (Kecekapan Penggunaan Strategi Kitaran Pembelajaran dalam Memperoleh Konsep Tatabahasa Bahasa Arab: Satu Kajian



Applied to grade 9 students in Jordan, this study aimed at examining the effi ciency of using the ‘learning cycle’ strategy in acquiring Arabic grammatical concepts. A sample of 124 students was approved, which was distributed over two schools (boys and girls) and in two groups. The experimental group was taught the subject instructional material through the learning cycle strategy with 29 males and 35 females, whereas the control group was taught through the same material through the traditional program with 32 males and 28 females. In terms of fi ndings, there were found statistically signifi cant differences in the subjects’ achievement in acquiring Arabic grammatical concepts, in favor of the experimental group. Statistically signifi cant differences were also found due to gender in favor of females. Whereas no statistically signifi cant differences were found due to the interaction between group/teaching strategy and gender.


Learning cycle; grammatical concepts; grade 9 students; Arabic language

Full Text:



Abraham, M. & Renner, J. 1986. The sequence of learning cycle activities in high school chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 23(2): 121-143.

Adwan Zaid & Hawamdeh, M. 2008. Teaching Design in Theory and Practice. Irbid: Alam el-Kutub el-Hadith.

Atkin, J.M. & Karplus, R. 1962. Discovery or invention? The Science Teacher 29(5): 45-51.

Blank, L. 2000. A metacognitive learning cycle: A better warranty for student understanding. Science Education 84(4): 486-506.

Cairney, T. 1995. Pathways to Literacy. New York: Cassel Printing House.

Cavallo, A. & Laubach, T. 2001. Students’ science perceptions and enrollment decisions in differing learning cycle classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 38: 1029-1062.

Fahmi Farouq & Muna Abdul-Sabour. 2001. Systematic Approach in Facing Present and Future Educational Challenges. Cairo: Dar el-Ma’arif.

Khalili, Khalil. 1996. Teaching Science in General Education Stages. Dubai: Dar el-Qalam.

Louis & Settlage. 1996. Teachers’ understandings of learning cycle as assessed with two-tier test. Journal of Science Teacher Education 7(2): 23-142.

Matthews, M. 2000. Constructivism in Science and Mathematics Education. http// Retrieved on 10 February 2005

Novak, J. & Gowin, W. 1986. Learning How to Learn. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Odom, A. & Kelly, V. 1999. Integrating concept mapping and the learning cycle to teach diffusion and osmosis concepts to high school biology student. Science Education 85:615-635.

Parker, V. & Gerber, B. 2000. Effects of a science intervention program on middle-grade student achievement and attitudes. School Science and Mathematics 100(5): 236–242.

Patterson, J. & Merwin, B. 2002. Teaching planet classification using the learning cycle. The Science Teacher 69: 22-27.

Prawat, R. & Folden, R. 1994. Philosophical perspectives on constructivist views of learning. Educational Psychology 29(1): 37-48.

Qadir, A. Mohammad. 2006. The effect of using the constructivist learning strategy in teaching mathematics on high-school students’ academic attainment and critical thinking. Mathematical Education Journal 9: 127-215.

Renner, J., Michael R. & Howard, H. 2006. The necessity of each phase of the learning cycle in teaching high school physics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 25(1): 39-58.

Smerdon, B. & Burkham, D. 1999. Access to constructivist and didactic teaching: Who gets it? Where is it practiced?. Teachers College Record 101(1): 5-35.

Sunal, D. 2003. Learning Meaning through Conceptual Reconstruction: A Learning/Teaching Strategy for Secondary Students. Retrieved April 6, 2009

Walsh, M.1997. Constructivist Cautions: Theory of Constructivism. Boston: Delta Kappan.

Walters, J. & Sunal, C.1999. Studying our skin: Learning about human skin using a learning-cycle structure. Science and Children 37: 36-39.

Watts, D. & Bentley, D. 1991. Constructivism in curriculum: Can we close the gap between the strong version and the weak version of the theory of action. The Curriculum Journal 2(2): 171-182.

Wheatley, G. 1991. Constructivist perspectives on science and mathematics learning. The Science Teacher 75: 9-21.

Yatim, Sharif. 2008. The effect of integrating the two constructivist learning strategies; learning cycle and conceptual map in students’ attitudes toward knowledge. Arabian Gulf Journal 108: 55-93.

Zaitoun Hassan & Zaitoun, K. 2003. Education and Teaching in the Constructivist Theory. Cairo: Alam el-Kutub


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

© Malaysian Journal of Education | Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia
ISSN 2180-0782 | eISSN: 2600-8823