Suhaila Ab Hamid, Siti Hamidah I, Norshamiera Normi, Amila Faqhira Zainodin, Mohd Hafizul Hasmadi M.N


This study investigated the diversity of aquatic insects as well as the chemical parameters of Sungai Air Terjun that runs in Penang Botanic Garden. Aquatic insects and chemical parameters of river were studied from April 2013 until January 2014. A total of twenty specimens were collected monthly using D and rectangular net following kick-net sampling technique. A total of 2966 individuals from 48 families of seven orders of aquatic insects were collected. The most abundant aquatic insects were recorded in July 2013 with 566 individuals from 44 genera, while the least abundant was in May 2013 with 156 individuals from 31 genera. The Diptera (996 individuals), Trichoptera (689 individuals) and Ephemeroptera (327 individuals) were very rich and diverse in this river during all the sampling months. This study provides a current situation of aquatic insect’s community and river condition of Sungai Air Terjun, Penang Botanic Garden. 

Full Text:



Ahmad, A.K., Idris, A.B., Mohamad Shuhaimi-Othman, Salwana, H. & Hamisah, H. 2008. A Prelimary survey of Chironomids diversity at headwater of Langat River, Selangor. Serangga 13(1-2):1- 18.

Armitage, P.D. 1995. Chironomidae as Food. In Armitage, P.D., Cranston P.S. & Pinder, L. C.V. (Eds.). Chironomidae. The Biology and Ecology of Non-Bitting Midges. London: Chapman and Hall.

Asahina, S. 1993. A list of the Odonata from Thailand: Parts I–XXI. Bangkok: Bosco Offset.

Beketov, M.A. 2004. Different sensitivity of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) to ammonia, nitrite and nitrate: Linkage between experimental and observational data. Hydrobiologia 528: 209–216.

Bell, C.E. 1990. Effect of low ph on the survival and emergence of aquatic insects. Water Research 5: 313-319.

Boyero, L., Ramirez, A., Dudgeon, D. and Pearson, R. G. 2009. Are tropical rivers really different? Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28: 397-403.

Bustos-Baez, S. & Frid, C. 2003. Using indicator species to assess the state of macroinvertebrate communities. Hydrobiologia 496: 299-309.

Compin’, A & Cereghino, R. 2003. Sensitivity of Aquatic Insect Richness to Disturbance in the Adour-Garonne Stream System (France). Ecological Indicators 3: 135-142

Dauer, D.M., Weisberg, S.B., Ranasinghe, J.A. 2000. Relationships between benthic community condition, water quality, sediment quality, nutrient loads, and land use patterns in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 23: 80–96.

Dudgeon, D. 1999. Tropical Asean Streams (Zoobenthos, Ecology and Conservation). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Ekness, P. & Randhir, T.O. 2007. Effects of riparian areas, stream order, and land use disturbance on watershed-scale habitat potential: An ecohydrologic approach to policy. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(6): 1468–1482.

Elzinga, R.J. 2004. Fundamentals of Entomology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Gill, D.E. 2000. The impact of the Monteverde lecheria on the Quebrada Guacimal. In Nadkarni, N.M. & Whellwright, N.T. (Eds.). Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hamalainen, M. 1994. Dragonflies of Mount Kinabalu (the highest mountain in Borneo). Malangpo11:77–81.

Jackson, J.K. & Fureder, L. 2006. Long-term studies of freshwater macroinvertebrates: A review of the frequency, duration and ecological significance. Freshwater Biology 51: 591-603.

Lindegaard, C. 1995. Classification of water-bodies and pollution. In Armitage, P.D., Cranston, P.S. & Pinder, L.C.V. (Eds.). The Chironomidae: Biology and Ecology of Non-Biting Midges, pp. 385–404. London: Chapman and Hall.

McCafferty W.P. 1983. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen‟s and Ecologists. Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Portola Valley: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Merritt, R.W. & Cummins, K.W. 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 3rd editions. Iowa: Kendall/ Hunt Publishing. Co.

Mitchell, M.K. & Stapp, W.B. 1995. Field Manual for Water Quality Monitoring. An Environmental Education Program for Schools. 9th editions. Dexter, MI: Thomson-Shore, Inc.

Morse, J.C. Yang, L. & Tian, L. 1994. Aquatic insects of China useful for monitoring water quality. Nanjing: Hohai University Press.

Murphy, S. 2007. General Information on Alkalinity.

http;// [23/4/2014]

Richardson, J.S. 1992. Coarse Particulate Detritus Dynamics in Small Montane Streams of the Southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 337-346.

Roy, A.H., Rosemond, A.D. Leigh, D.S. Paul, M.J. & Wallace J.B. 2003. Habitat-specific responses of stream insects to land cover disturbance: biological consequences and monitoring implications. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22: 292-307.

Suhaila, A.H. & Che Salmah, M.R. 2011. Influence of substrate-embeddedness and canopy cover on the abundance and diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in recreational rivers. Aquatic Insects 33(4): 281-292.

Suhaila, A. H, Che Salmah, M.R., Hamady, D., Abu Hassan, A., Tomomitsu, S., Fumio, M. & Michael, B. 2011. Seasonal changes in mayfly communities and abundance in relation to water physico-chemistry in two rivers at different elevations in northern Malaysia. Wetland Science 9(3): 240-250.

Suhaila, A.H, Che Salmah, M.R. & Salman, A.S. 2012. Temporal distribution of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) adults in a Tropical Forest Stream: Response to tropics seasonality variations. The Environmentalist 32(1): 28-34.

Suhaila, A.H. & Che Salmah, M.R. 2014. Ecology of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) in rivers of Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve: Diversity and distribution of functional feeding groups. Life Science Tropical Research 25(1): 61-73.

Townsend, C.R. & Hildrew, A.G. 1994. Species traits in relation to habitat templet for river systems. Freshwater Biology 31: 265-275.

Yule, C.M. & Yong, H.S. 2004. Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region. Kuala Lumpur: Akademi Sains Malaysia.


  • There are currently no refbacks.