Resources Availability in Basic Schools in Kwara State of Nigeria: Implications for Instructional Supervision (Penyediaan Sumber-Sumber Asas di Negeri Kwara, Nigeria: Implikasi terhadap Penyeliaan Pengajaran Instruksional)



Teachers and textbooks are vital human and instructional resources, which administrators of educational institutions require for successful implementation of their educational programmes. This study investigated availability and adequacy of these resources and their implications on instructional supervision. Two research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested in the study. Population for the study was basic school teachers in the 16 Local Government Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. Research instrument tagged “Resource Availability Questionnaire” (RAQ) was administered to a sample of 300 teachers from 30 basic schools, which were selected using purposive and random sampling techniques. Results of data analyses showed that teachers and textbooks were not adequate, that there was no significant difference between urban and rural schools in supply of textbooks, and that there was a significant difference between urban and rural schools in supply of teachers. It was recommended that instructional supervisors should ensure proper coordination and foster cooperation among parents, community members and other stakeholders so that they could assist the Government in supply of teachers and textbooks to basic schools in the State.

Keywords: Resource availability, basic schools, instructional supervision, human resources, instructional resources, specialist teachers.


Guru dan buku teks adalah sumber manusia dan pengajaran yang penting, bersama pentadbir institusi pendidikan dalam mencapai kejayaan pelaksanaan program pendidikan. Kajian ini untuk mengkaji penyediaan dan kecukupan sumber-sumber ini dan implikasinya terhadap penyeliaan pengajaran instruksional. Dua soalan kajian telah dijawab dan dua hipotesis telah diuji dalam kajian ini. Populasi kajian ini adalah guru sekolah dasar di 16 buah kerajaan tempatan di negeri Kwara, Nigeria. Instrumen yang digunakan ialah “Resource Availability Questionnaire” (RAQ) yang telah ditadbirkan terhadap 300 orang guru daripada 30 buah sekolah dasar yang dipilih secara rawak bertujuan dan teknik pensampelan rawak. Data kajian menunjukkan bahawa guru dan buku teks tidak mencukupi, tidak ada perbezaan yang signifikan antara sekolah-sekolah bandar dan luar bandar dalam pembekalan buku teks, terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara sekolah-sekolah bandar dan luar bandar dalam pembekalan guru. Adalah disyorkan bahawa penyelia pengajaran instruksional perlu memastikan koordinasi dan kerjasama yang menggalakkan dalam kalangan ibu bapa, ahli komuniti dan pihak berkepentingan lain supaya mereka dapat membantu kerajaan tempatan dalam membekalkan guru dan buku teks ke sekolah-sekolah dasar di peringkat negeri.

Kata kunci: Penyediaan sumber, sekolah dasar, penyeliaan pengajaran instruksional, sumber manusia, sumber pengajaran, guru pakar


Resource availability, basic schools, instructional supervision, human resources, instructional resources, specialist teachers.

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